Abdusalam Guseynov, born in 1939, is Director of the Institute of Philosophy at the Russian Academy of Sciences and Chair of Ethics in the Faculty of Philosophy at Moscow State University. In 1997 Guseynov was elected as a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and in 2003, a full member, becoming the only Academy member whose field is ethics. Guseynov was presented with the State Award of Russian Federation in 2003 for his New Philosophical Encyclopedia in 4 volumes. His other publications include Social Nature of Morality (1974), The Golden Rule of Morality (1979), Language and Conscience (1996), Philosophy, Morality, Politics (2002), The Idea of the Absolute in Morality (2004), and Negative Ethics (2007).